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In this study, the human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 was used in order to modify the alkaloid production of tobacco plants. The cDNA for human CYP2A6 was placed under the control of the constitutive 35S promoter and transferred into Nicotiana tabacum via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants showed formation of the recombinant CYP2A6 enzyme but no obvious phenotypic changes. Unlike wild-type tobacco, the transgenic plants accumulated cotinine, a metabolite which is usually formed from nicotine in humans. This result substantiates that metabolic engineering of the plant secondary metabolism via mammalian P450 enzymes is possible in vivo.