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Preliminary studies indicate that G-CSF-primed marrow harvesting may result in a graft with increased mononuclear cells collected, increased CD34(+) stem and progenitor cell dose and a potential for more rapid engraftment. Increased cell dose plus other potential positive effects of G-CSF priming have resulted in improved survival in non-randomized preliminary studies. These benefits may be available without the increased risk of chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) that is experienced with allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplant. A phase III Children's Oncology Group (COG)/Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium (PBMTC) trial comparing G-CSF-primed marrow to standard marrow has been proposed. This document reviews background studies of G-CSF-primed marrow and addresses benefits and risks of G-CSF administration to normal pediatric donors. We conclude that the approach is promising and warrants further study. Risks of G-CSF to the donor are minimal and benefits to both donor and recipient may occur.