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Correlations exist between the abundance of S100 proteins and disease pathologies. Indeed, this is evidenced by the heterodimeric S100 protein complex S100A8/A9 which has been shown to be involved in inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. However, S100A8/A9 appears as a Janus-faced molecule in this context. On the one hand, it is a powerful apoptotic agent produced by immune cells, making it a very fascinating tool in the battle against cancer. It spears the risk to induce auto-immune response and may serve as a lead compound for cancer-selective therapeutics. In contrast, S100A8/A9 expression in cancer cells has also been associated with tumor development, cancer invasion or metastasis. Clearly, there is a dichotomy and future investigations into the role of S100A8/A9 in cancer biology need to consider both sides of the same coin.