Glucokinase (GK) activity is essential for the physiological regulation of insulin secretion by glucose. Because the enzyme exerts nearly total control over glucose metabolism in the beta-cell, even small changes in GK activity exert effects on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and, consequently, the blood glucose concentration. Using quantitative imaging of multicolor fluorescent proteins fused to GK, we found that the association of GK with insulin granules is regulated by glucose in the beta-cell. Glucose stimulation increased the rate of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of GK to insulin granules, indicating that GK is released into the cytoplasm after glucose stimulation. Changes in fluorescence resonance energy transfer between two different fluorescent protein variants inserted on opposing ends of GK were observed after glucose stimulation and correlated with increased enzyme activity. Furthermore, glucose-stimulated changes in GK regulation were blocked by two inhibitors of insulin secretion. Insulin treatment restored GK regulation in inhibited cells and stimulated GK translocation and activation by itself. Together, these data support a model for post-translational regulation of GK whereby insulin regulates both the association of GK with secretory granules and the activity of the enzyme within the pancreatic beta-cell.