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Rab11a is a member of the Rab11 small GTPase family, and plays an important role in plasma membrane recycling. Rab11-Family Interacting Protein 1 (Rab11-FIP1) binds to Rab11 through a carboxyl-terminal amphipathic alpha helix. We have identified eight alternatively spliced Rab11-FIP1 gene transcripts from human chromosome 8. Among them, Rab11-FIP1A-D have carboxyl terminal Rab11 binding domains, while Rab11-FIP1E-H do not contain the Rab11 binding domain. While Rab11-FIP1B and F gene transcripts are ubiquitous, other Rab11-FIP1 transcripts demonstrate more limited patterns of expression in human tissue cDNAs. EGFP-Rab11-FIP1A-D proteins over-expressed in HeLa cells targeted to Rab11a-containing membranes, while EGFP-Rab11-FIP1E/F and H proteins did not localize with recycling system membranes. However, transferrin trafficking was not significantly altered in HeLa cells over-expressing expressing any of the EGFP-Rab11-FIP1 proteins. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific for Rab11-FIP1B and Rab11-FIP1C/RCP demonstrated that Rab11-FIP1B and Rab11-FIP1C/RCP are expressed endogenously. Strikingly, endogenous staining for Rab11-FIP1C/RCP only partially co-localized with EGFP-Rab11-FIP1A, EGFP-Rab11-FIP1B, and EGFP-Rab11a in the perinuclear region, indicating that Rab11-FIP1C/RCP resides in a differentiable subcellular compartment within the plasma membrane recycling system compared with Rab11-FIP1A and Rab11-FIP1B. These data suggest that Rab11-FIP1 proteins may play coordinated roles in regulating plasma membrane recycling with regional specificity within the Rab11a-containing recycling system.