Multiple myeloma (MM) patients frequently develop tumor-induced bone destruction, yet no therapy completely eliminates the tumor or fully reverses bone loss. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activity often contributes to tumor-induced bone disease, and pre-clinical studies have indicated that TGF-β inhibition improves bone volume and reduces tumor growth in bone metastatic breast cancer. We hypothesized that inhibition of TGF-β signaling also reduces tumor growth, increases bone volume, and improves vertebral body strength in MM-bearing mice. We treated myeloma tumor-bearing (immunocompetent KaLwRij and immunocompromised Rag2-/-) mice with a TGF-β inhibitory (1D11) or control (13C4) antibody, with or without the anti-myeloma drug bortezomib, for 4weeks after inoculation of murine 5TGM1 MM cells. TGF-β inhibition increased trabecular bone volume, improved trabecular architecture, increased tissue mineral density of the trabeculae as assessed by ex vivo micro-computed tomography, and was associated with significantly greater vertebral body strength in biomechanical compression tests. Serum monoclonal paraprotein titers and spleen weights showed that 1D11 monotherapy did not reduce overall MM tumor burden. Combination therapy with 1D11 and bortezomib increased vertebral body strength, reduced tumor burden, and reduced cortical lesions in the femoral metaphysis, although it did not significantly improve cortical bone strength in three-point bending tests of the mid-shaft femur. Overall, our data provides rationale for evaluating inhibition of TGF-β signaling in combination with existing anti-myeloma agents as a potential therapeutic strategy to improve outcomes in patients with myeloma bone disease.
Published by Elsevier Inc.