OBJECTIVE - Using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D), we have previously demonstrated that long-term diabetes inhibits regenerative bone formation during tibial distraction osteogenesis (DO) and perturbs skeletal integrity by decreasing cortical thickness, bone mineral density and bone's resistance to fracture. Because long-standing T1D is also associated with a deficiency of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), we examined the effects of systemic IGF-I treatment on skeletal microarchitecture and strength, as well as on bone formation in diabetic mice.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Streptozotocin-induced diabetic or control mice were treated with recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I, 1.5mg/kg/day as subcutaneous infusion) or vehicle throughout a 14day DO procedure. Thereafter, trunk blood was assayed for glucose, insulin, rhIGF-I, mouse IGF-I and leptin. Bone formation in distracted tibiae was quantified. Effects on cortical bone strength and trabecular bone architecture were assessed by μCT analysis and three-point bend testing of contralateral femurs.
RESULTS - New bone formation during DO was reduced in diabetic mice but significantly improved with rhIGF-I treatment. The contralateral femurs of diabetic mice demonstrated significant reductions in trabecular thickness, yield strength and peak force of cortical bone, which were improved with rhIGF-I treatment. rhIGF-I also reduced intracortical porosity in control mice. However, treatment with rhIGF-I did not normalize serum glucose, or correct concurrent deficiencies of insulin or leptin seen in diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS - These findings demonstrate that despite persistent hyperglycemia, rhIGF-I promoted new bone formation and improved biomechanical properties of bone in a model of T1D, suggesting that it may be useful as a fracture preventative in this disease.