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Bypass of the foregut following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery results in altered nutrient absorption, which is proposed to underlie the improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We conducted a prospective crossover study in which a mixed meal was delivered orally before RYGB (gastric) and both orally (jejunal) and by gastrostomy tube (gastric) postoperatively (1 and 6 wk) in nine subjects. Glucose, insulin, and incretin responses were measured, and whole-body insulin sensitivity was estimated with the insulin sensitivity index composite. RYGB resulted in an improved glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) area under the curve (AUC) in the first 6 wk postoperatively (all P ≤ 0.018); there was no effect of delivery route (all P ≥ 0.632) or route × time interaction (all P ≥ 0.084). The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) AUC was unchanged after RYGB (P = 0.819); however, GIP levels peaked earlier after RYGB with jejunal delivery. The ratio of insulin AUC to GLP-1 and GIP AUC decreased after surgery (P =.001 and 0.061, respectively) without an effect of delivery route over time (both P ≥ 0.646). Insulin sensitivity improved post-RYGB (P = 0.001) with no difference between the gastric and jejunal delivery of the mixed meal over time (P = 0.819). These data suggest that exclusion of nutrients from the foregut with RYGB does not improve glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. However, changes in the foregut response post-RYGB due to lack of nutrient exposure cannot be excluded. Our findings suggest that foregut bypass may alter the incretin response by enhanced nutrient delivery to the hindgut.