Lipid aldehydes generated by lipid peroxidation induce cell damage and inflammation. Recent evidence indicates that γ-ketoaldehydes (isolevuglandins, IsoLGs) form inflammatory mediators by modifying the ethanolamine headgroup of phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs). To determine if other species of aldehyde-modified PEs (al-PEs) with inflammatory bioactivity were generated by lipid peroxidation, we oxidized liposomes containing arachidonic acid and characterized the resulting products. We detected PE modified by IsoLGs, malondialdehyde (MDA), and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), as well as a novel series of N-acyl-PEs and N-carboxyacyl-PEs in these oxidized liposomes. These al-PEs were also detected in high-density lipoproteins exposed to myeloperoxidase. When we tested the ability of al-PEs to induce THP-1 monocyte adhesion to cultured endothelial cells, we found that PEs modified by MDA, HNE, and 4-oxononenal induced adhesion with potencies similar to those of PEs modified by IsoLGs (∼2μM). A commercially available medium-chain N-carboxyacyl-PE (C11:0CAPE) also stimulated adhesion, whereas C4:0CAPE and N-acyl-PEs did not. PEs modified by acrolein or by glucose were only partial agonists for adhesion. These studies indicate that lipid peroxidation generates a large family of al-PEs, many of which have the potential to drive inflammation.
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