This article addresses two topics. We provide an overview of the National Institutes of Health Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center (MMPC) Program. We then discuss some observations we have made during the first eight years of the Vanderbilt MMPC regarding common phenotyping practices. We include specific recommendations to improve phenotyping practices for tests of glucose tolerance and insulin action. We recommend that methods for experiments in vivo be described in manuscripts. We make specific recommendations for data presentation, interpretation, and experimental design for each test. To facilitate and maximize the exchange of scientific information, we suggest that guidelines be developed for methods used to assess glucose tolerance and insulin action in vivo.