Complex regulation of transforming growth factor beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 mRNA expression in mouse fibroblasts and keratinocytes by transforming growth factors beta 1 and beta 2.

Bascom CC, Wolfshohl JR, Coffey RJ, Madisen L, Webb NR, Purchio AR, Derynck R, Moses HL
Mol Cell Biol. 1989 9 (12): 5508-15

PMID: 2586525 · PMCID: PMC363721

Regulation of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1), TGF beta 2, and TGF beta 3 mRNAs in murine fibroblasts and keratinocytes by TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 was studied. In quiescent AKR-2B fibroblasts, in which TGF beta induces delayed stimulation of DNA synthesis, TGF beta 1 autoregulation of TGF beta 1 expression was observed as early as 1 h, with maximal induction (25-fold) after 6 to 12 h. Increased expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA was accompanied by increased TGF beta protein production into conditioned medium of AKR-2B cells. Neither TGF beta 2 nor TGF beta 3 mRNA, however, was significantly induced, but both were apparently down regulated at later times by TGF beta 1. Protein synthesis was not required for autoinduction of TGF beta 1 mRNA in AKR-2B cells. Nuclear run-on analyses and dactinomycin experiments indicated that autoregulation of TGF beta 1 expression is complex, involving both increased transcription and message stabilization. In contrast to TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 treatment of quiescent AKR-2B cells increased expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2, and TGF beta 3 mRNAs, but with different kinetics. Autoinduction of TGF beta 2 mRNA occurred rapidly with maximal induction at 1 to 3 h, enhanced TGF beta 3 mRNA levels were observed after 3 h, and increased expression of TGF beta 1 occurred later, with maximal mRNA levels obtained after 12 to 24 h. Nuclear run-on analyses indicated that TGF beta 2 regulation of TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 mRNA levels is transcriptional, while TGF beta 2 induction of TGF beta 1 expression most likely involves both transcriptional and posttranscriptional controls. In BALB/MK mouse keratinocytes, minimal autoinduction of TGF beta 1 occurred at only the 12- and 24-h time points and protein synthesis was required for this autoinduction. The results of this study provide an example in which TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 elicit different responses and demonstrate that expression of TGF beta 1, and TGF beta 3 are regulated differently. The physiological relevance of TGF beta 1 autoinduction in the context of wound healing is discussed.

MeSH Terms (15)

Animals Cell Nucleus Cells, Cultured Cycloheximide Dactinomycin Fibroblasts Gene Expression Regulation Genes Keratinocytes Mice Mice, Inbred AKR Mice, Inbred BALB C RNA, Messenger Transcription, Genetic Transforming Growth Factors

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