Manganese (Mn) is an environmental risk factor for neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration of the basal ganglia and other brain regions. Aberrant brain Mn levels have been linked to manganism, Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and other neurological disorders. Research on the cellular basis of Mn neurotoxicity has relied upon in vitro or non-human model systems. However, an analysis of relevant Mn concentrations for in vitro studies is lacking - and few studies have examined intracellular Mn levels. Here we perform calculations to evaluate in vitro exposure paradigms in relation to relevant in vivo levels of Mn post-exposure.
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