Genomic imprinting of Dopa decarboxylase in heart and reciprocal allelic expression with neighboring Grb10.

Menheniott TR, Woodfine K, Schulz R, Wood AJ, Monk D, Giraud AS, Baldwin HS, Moore GE, Oakey RJ
Mol Cell Biol. 2008 28 (1): 386-96

PMID: 17967881 · PMCID: PMC2223316 · DOI:10.1128/MCB.00862-07

By combining a tissue-specific microarray screen with mouse uniparental duplications, we have identified a novel imprinted gene, Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), on chromosome 11. Ddc_exon1a is a 2-kb transcript variant that initiates from an alternative first exon in intron 1 of the canonical Ddc transcript and is paternally expressed in trabecular cardiomyocytes of the embryonic and neonatal heart. Ddc displays tight conserved linkage with the maternally expressed and methylated Grb10 gene, suggesting that these reciprocally imprinted genes may be coordinately regulated. In Dnmt3L mutant embryos that lack maternal germ line methylation imprints, we show that Ddc is overexpressed and Grb10 is silenced. Their imprinting is therefore dependent on maternal germ line methylation, but the mechanism at Ddc does not appear to involve differential methylation of the Ddc_exon1a promoter region and may instead be provided by the oocyte mark at Grb10. Our analysis of Ddc redefines the imprinted Grb10 domain on mouse proximal chromosome 11 and identifies Ddc_exon1a as the first example of a heart-specific imprinted gene.

MeSH Terms (22)

Adenosine Triphosphatases Alleles Animals ATPases Associated with Diverse Cellular Activities Base Sequence Cytoskeletal Proteins DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases DNA Methylation Dopa Decarboxylase Exons Genomic Imprinting GRB10 Adaptor Protein Humans Mice Mice, Transgenic Microfilament Proteins Microtubule-Associated Proteins Myocardium Nuclear Proteins Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis Organ Specificity Proteins

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