We investigate mechanisms by which signaling and transcription factors regulate cell growth, differentiation, and survival. The lab dissects these questions through an integration of genetic manipulations, biochemical studies, and analyses of function in immunity.

Potential projects (2013):
1. Investigation of a novel protein cloned in the lab, which enhances the function of a transcription factor central to allergic diseases and asthma. We are using knockout mice deficient in this cofactor, a novel ADP-ribosyltransferase, to explore how this protein impacts signaling to the regulation of programmed cell death, cellular metabolism, B lymphoma pathophysiology (because of connections to a related protein affecting the outcome of lymphocyte cancers), and the impact of this protein on vaccination and immunity to pathogens.
2. Signaling and immune function mediated by the Akt / mTOR axis of serine-threonine kinases. We have identified evidence of an important role for a novel complex involving the kinase mTOR - "mammalian target of rapamycin" (rapamycin being an important immune suppressant drug) - in T cell differentiation and are dissecting molecular mechanisms involved in these findings as well as impact on leukemia development and on immunity, including T cell memory, B cell development and function in models of vaccination and anti-pathogen immunity, and in autoimmunity.
3. Regulation of cytokine gene transcription. Studies of particular excitement at present include working to understand the molecular and epigenetic basis for two processes we have identified for immunological memory as carried by cells in the T helper 2 subset.

One major focus is on the differentiation of naive T helper lymphocytes into activated cells that have acquired effector functions, i.e., the ability to express new genes that orchestrate immune responses. One subset of effector T helper cells is called the Th2 subset. Differentiation into Th2 effectors is driven by the cytokine IL-4, so one major area of study in the lab is the transduction of signals by the IL-4 receptor and the means by which IL-4 regulates gene transcription. We cloned and knocked out a gene encoding a novel protein that enhances IL-4 induction of transcription and pro-survival signaling. Future studies will include determining the biochemical and function roles of this novel transcriptional coregulator.

We recently discovered that memory Th2 cells permit an unexpected flexibility in regulation of the Th1 cytokine gene for IFN-gamma while at the same time retaining commitment to expression of the characteristic Th2 cytokine genes (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13). We will dissect molecular mechanisms for both flexibility and commitment, using analyses of transcription factor knockouts as well as of chromatin (epigenetic DNA methylation as well as histone modifications).

A second class of effector T cells is known as the Th1 subset, of which a hallmark is the activation of the gene encoding the inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma. We dicsoveredthat the transcription factor NF-kappaB is particularly important in the Th1 response but not in responses mediated by Th2 cells, and have identified an orderly sequence of molecular events leading to remodeling of the IFN-gamma promoter. Using analyses of chromatin modifications and structure in the interferon gamma locus, we are in the process of determining the mechanisms by which the gene is regulated in primary T helper subsets, memory CD4 cells, and exploring the impact of these processes on differentiation of another autoimmunity-promoting class of T cells (Th17 cells).

Finally, we are in the midst of developing exciting data for both T and B lymphocytes in relation to the signaling pathways described above and dissecting how these pathways impact the generation and persistence of antibody-producing cells and immune memory.


The following timeline graph is generated from all co-authored publications.

Featured publications are shown below:

  1. B Cell-Intrinsic mTORC1 Promotes Germinal Center-Defining Transcription Factor Gene Expression, Somatic Hypermutation, and Memory B Cell Generation in Humoral Immunity. Raybuck AL, Cho SH, Li J, Rogers MC, Lee K, Williams CL, Shlomchik M, Thomas JW, Chen J, Williams JV, Boothby MR (2018) J Immunol 200(8): 2627-2639
    › Primary publication · 29531165 (PubMed) · PMC5893413 (PubMed Central)
  2. PI3K Inhibition Reduces Mammary Tumor Growth and Facilitates Antitumor Immunity and Anti-PD1 Responses. Sai J, Owens P, Novitskiy SV, Hawkins OE, Vilgelm AE, Yang J, Sobolik T, Lavender N, Johnson AC, McClain C, Ayers GD, Kelley MC, Sanders M, Mayer IA, Moses HL, Boothby M, Richmond A (2017) Clin Cancer Res 23(13): 3371-3384
    › Primary publication · 28003307 (PubMed) · PMC5479746 (PubMed Central)
  3. PARP9 and PARP14 cross-regulate macrophage activation via STAT1 ADP-ribosylation. Iwata H, Goettsch C, Sharma A, Ricchiuto P, Goh WW, Halu A, Yamada I, Yoshida H, Hara T, Wei M, Inoue N, Fukuda D, Mojcher A, Mattson PC, Barabási AL, Boothby M, Aikawa E, Singh SA, Aikawa M (2016) Nat Commun : 12849
    › Primary publication · 27796300 (PubMed) · PMC5095532 (PubMed Central)
  4. Germinal centre hypoxia and regulation of antibody qualities by a hypoxia response system. Cho SH, Raybuck AL, Stengel K, Wei M, Beck TC, Volanakis E, Thomas JW, Hiebert S, Haase VH, Boothby MR (2016) Nature 537(7619): 234-238
    › Primary publication · 27501247 (PubMed) · PMC5161594 (PubMed Central)
  5. Prostaglandin I2 Suppresses Proinflammatory Chemokine Expression, CD4 T Cell Activation, and STAT6-Independent Allergic Lung Inflammation. Zhou W, Zhang J, Goleniewska K, Dulek DE, Toki S, Newcomb DC, Cephus JY, Collins RD, Wu P, Boothby MR, Peebles RS (2016) J Immunol 197(5): 1577-86
    › Primary publication · 27456482 (PubMed) · PMC4992670 (PubMed Central)
  6. Signaling in T cells - is anything the m(a)TOR with the picture(s)? Boothby M (2016) F1000Res
    › Primary publication · 26949528 (PubMed) · PMC4760271 (PubMed Central)
  7. Regulation of endothelial cell proliferation and vascular assembly through distinct mTORC2 signaling pathways. Wang S, Amato KR, Song W, Youngblood V, Lee K, Boothby M, Brantley-Sieders DM, Chen J (2015) Mol Cell Biol 35(7): 1299-313
    › Primary publication · 25582201 (PubMed) · PMC4355541 (PubMed Central)
  8. TLR4 genotype and environmental LPS mediate RSV bronchiolitis through Th2 polarization. Caballero MT, Serra ME, Acosta PL, Marzec J, Gibbons L, Salim M, Rodriguez A, Reynaldi A, Garcia A, Bado D, Buchholz UJ, Hijano DR, Coviello S, Newcomb D, Bellabarba M, Ferolla FM, Libster R, Berenstein A, Siniawaski S, Blumetti V, Echavarria M, Pinto L, Lawrence A, Ossorio MF, Grosman A, Mateu CG, Bayle C, Dericco A, Pellegrini M, Igarza I, Repetto HA, Grimaldi LA, Gudapati P, Polack NR, Althabe F, Shi M, Ferrero F, Bergel E, Stein RT, Peebles RS, Boothby M, Kleeberger SR, Polack FP (2015) J Clin Invest 125(2): 571-82
    › Primary publication · 25555213 (PubMed) · PMC4319428 (PubMed Central)
  9. Myeloid IKKβ promotes antitumor immunity by modulating CCL11 and the innate immune response. Yang J, Hawkins OE, Barham W, Gilchuk P, Boothby M, Ayers GD, Joyce S, Karin M, Yull FE, Richmond A (2014) Cancer Res 74(24): 7274-84
    › Primary publication · 25336190 (PubMed) · PMC4349570 (PubMed Central)
  10. microRNA-mediated regulation of mTOR complex components facilitates discrimination between activation and anergy in CD4 T cells. Marcais A, Blevins R, Graumann J, Feytout A, Dharmalingam G, Carroll T, Amado IF, Bruno L, Lee K, Walzer T, Mann M, Freitas AA, Boothby M, Fisher AG, Merkenschlager M (2014) J Exp Med 211(11): 2281-95
    › Primary publication · 25311506 (PubMed) · PMC4203951 (PubMed Central)
  11. Cross talk between the Akt and p38α pathways in macrophages downstream of Toll-like receptor signaling. McGuire VA, Gray A, Monk CE, Santos SG, Lee K, Aubareda A, Crowe J, Ronkina N, Schwermann J, Batty IH, Leslie NR, Dean JL, O'Keefe SJ, Boothby M, Gaestel M, Arthur JS (2013) Mol Cell Biol 33(21): 4152-65
    › Primary publication · 23979601 (PubMed) · PMC3811899 (PubMed Central)
  12. Requirement for Rictor in homeostasis and function of mature B lymphoid cells. Lee K, Heffington L, Jellusova J, Nam KT, Raybuck A, Cho SH, Thomas JW, Rickert RC, Boothby M (2013) Blood 122(14): 2369-79
    › Primary publication · 23958952 (PubMed) · PMC3790507 (PubMed Central)
  13. B cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic regulation of antibody responses by PARP14, an intracellular (ADP-ribosyl)transferase. Cho SH, Raybuck A, Wei M, Erickson J, Nam KT, Cox RG, Trochtenberg A, Thomas JW, Williams J, Boothby M (2013) J Immunol 191(6): 3169-78
    › Primary publication · 23956424 (PubMed) · PMC3770464 (PubMed Central)
  14. STAT4 and T-bet are required for the plasticity of IFN-γ expression across Th2 ontogeny and influence changes in Ifng promoter DNA methylation. Williams CL, Schilling MM, Cho SH, Lee K, Wei M, Aditi , Boothby M (2013) J Immunol 191(2): 678-87
    › Primary publication · 23761633 (PubMed) · PMC3702659 (PubMed Central)
  15. Cdc42 promotes host defenses against fatal infection. Lee K, Boyd KL, Parekh DV, Kehl-Fie TE, Baldwin HS, Brakebusch C, Skaar EP, Boothby M, Zent R (2013) Infect Immun 81(8): 2714-23
    › Primary publication · 23690402 (PubMed) · PMC3719566 (PubMed Central)
  16. The Goldilocks effect. Boothby M, Williams CL (2012) Sci Transl Med 4(163): 163fs42
    › Primary publication · 23220631 (PubMed)
  17. Epigenetic regulation of the Ink4a-Arf (Cdkn2a) tumor suppressor locus in the initiation and progression of Notch1-driven T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Volanakis EJ, Boothby MR, Sherr CJ (2013) Exp Hematol 41(4): 377-86
    › Primary publication · 23178376 (PubMed) · PMC3860824 (PubMed Central)
  18. Cutting edge: influence of Tmevpg1, a long intergenic noncoding RNA, on the expression of Ifng by Th1 cells. Collier SP, Collins PL, Williams CL, Boothby MR, Aune TM (2012) J Immunol 189(5): 2084-8
    › Primary publication · 22851706 (PubMed) · PMC3424368 (PubMed Central)
  19. INK4a/ARF [corrected] inactivation with activation of the NF-κB/IL-6 pathway is sufficient to drive the development and growth of angiosarcoma. Yang J, Kantrow S, Sai J, Hawkins OE, Boothby M, Ayers GD, Young ED, Demicco EG, Lazar AJ, Lev D, Richmond A (2012) Cancer Res 72(18): 4682-95
    › Primary publication · 22836752 (PubMed) · PMC3459578 (PubMed Central)
  20. Effects of cancer-associated EPHA3 mutations on lung cancer. Zhuang G, Song W, Amato K, Hwang Y, Lee K, Boothby M, Ye F, Guo Y, Shyr Y, Lin L, Carbone DP, Brantley-Sieders DM, Chen J (2012) J Natl Cancer Inst 104(15): 1182-97
    › Primary publication · 22829656 (PubMed) · PMC3611812 (PubMed Central)
  21. Vital roles of mTOR complex 2 in Notch-driven thymocyte differentiation and leukemia. Lee K, Nam KT, Cho SH, Gudapati P, Hwang Y, Park DS, Potter R, Chen J, Volanakis E, Boothby M (2012) J Exp Med 209(4): 713-28
    › Primary publication · 22473959 (PubMed) · PMC3328370 (PubMed Central)
  22. IL-15 regulates homeostasis and terminal maturation of NKT cells. Gordy LE, Bezbradica JS, Flyak AI, Spencer CT, Dunkle A, Sun J, Stanic AK, Boothby MR, He YW, Zhao Z, Van Kaer L, Joyce S (2011) J Immunol 187(12): 6335-45
    › Primary publication · 22084435 (PubMed) · PMC3237743 (PubMed Central)
  23. Glycolytic rate and lymphomagenesis depend on PARP14, an ADP ribosyltransferase of the B aggressive lymphoma (BAL) family. Cho SH, Ahn AK, Bhargava P, Lee CH, Eischen CM, McGuinness O, Boothby M (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(38): 15972-7
    › Primary publication · 21911376 (PubMed) · PMC3179111 (PubMed Central)
  24. A 'Tsc, Tsc' keeps the kids quie(scen)t and holds down ROS. Boothby M, Lee K (2011) Nat Immunol 12(9): 811-2
    › Primary publication · 21852776 (PubMed)
  25. Progress in the function and regulation of ADP-Ribosylation. Hottiger MO, Boothby M, Koch-Nolte F, Lüscher B, Martin NM, Plummer R, Wang ZQ, Ziegler M (2011) Sci Signal 4(174): mr5
    › Primary publication · 21610250 (PubMed)
  26. Cooperative signaling between Slit2 and Ephrin-A1 regulates a balance between angiogenesis and angiostasis. Dunaway CM, Hwang Y, Lindsley CW, Cook RS, Wu JY, Boothby M, Chen J, Brantley-Sieders DM (2011) Mol Cell Biol 31(3): 404-16
    › Primary publication · 21135133 (PubMed) · PMC3028625 (PubMed Central)
  27. Mammalian target of rapamycin protein complex 2 regulates differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cell subsets via distinct signaling pathways. Lee K, Gudapati P, Dragovic S, Spencer C, Joyce S, Killeen N, Magnuson MA, Boothby M (2010) Immunity 32(6): 743-53
    › Primary publication · 20620941 (PubMed) · PMC2911434 (PubMed Central)
  28. An atopy-associated polymorphism in the ectodomain of the IL-4R(alpha) chain (V50) regulates the persistence of STAT6 phosphorylation. Ford AQ, Heller NM, Stephenson L, Boothby MR, Keegan AD (2009) J Immunol 183(3): 1607-16
    › Primary publication · 19592641 (PubMed) · PMC2751580 (PubMed Central)
  29. PARP-14, a member of the B aggressive lymphoma family, transduces survival signals in primary B cells. Cho SH, Goenka S, Henttinen T, Gudapati P, Reinikainen A, Eischen CM, Lahesmaa R, Boothby M (2009) Blood 113(11): 2416-25
    › Primary publication · 19147789 (PubMed) · PMC2656269 (PubMed Central)
  30. Flexibility accompanies commitment of memory CD4 lymphocytes derived from IL-4 locus-activated precursors. Adeeku E, Gudapati P, Mendez-Fernandez Y, Van Kaer L, Boothby M (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(27): 9307-12
    › Primary publication · 18591677 (PubMed) · PMC2453725 (PubMed Central)
  31. Collaborator of Stat6 (CoaSt6)-associated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity modulates Stat6-dependent gene transcription. Goenka S, Cho SH, Boothby M (2007) J Biol Chem 282(26): 18732-9
    › Primary publication · 17478423 (PubMed)
  32. T helper type 1-specific Brg1 recruitment and remodeling of nucleosomes positioned at the IFN-gamma promoter are Stat4 dependent. Zhang F, Boothby M (2006) J Exp Med 203(6): 1493-505
    › Primary publication · 16717115 (PubMed) · PMC2118309 (PubMed Central)
  33. Selective potentiation of Stat-dependent gene expression by collaborator of Stat6 (CoaSt6), a transcriptional cofactor. Goenka S, Boothby M (2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(11): 4210-5
    › Primary publication · 16537510 (PubMed) · PMC1449672 (PubMed Central)
  34. Sequence motifs in IL-4R alpha mediating cell-cycle progression of primary lymphocytes. Stephenson LM, Park DS, Mora AL, Goenka S, Boothby M (2005) J Immunol 175(8): 5178-85
    › Primary publication · 16210622 (PubMed)
  35. Opposing roles for RelB and Bcl-3 in regulation of T-box expressed in T cells, GATA-3, and Th effector differentiation. Corn RA, Hunter C, Liou HC, Siebenlist U, Boothby MR (2005) J Immunol 175(4): 2102-10
    › Primary publication · 16081776 (PubMed)
  36. T-bet antagonizes mSin3a recruitment and transactivates a fully methylated IFN-gamma promoter via a conserved T-box half-site. Tong Y, Aune T, Boothby M (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(6): 2034-9
    › Primary publication · 15684083 (PubMed) · PMC548570 (PubMed Central)
  37. Susceptibility to allergic lung disease regulated by recall responses of dual-receptor memory T cells. Aronica MA, Swaidani S, Zhang YH, Mitchell D, Mora AL, McCarthy S, O'Neal J, Topham D, Sheller JR, Boothby M (2004) J Allergy Clin Immunol 114(6): 1441-8
    › Primary publication · 15577850 (PubMed)
  38. An IL-4R alpha allelic variant, I50, acts as a gain-of-function variant relative to V50 for Stat6, but not Th2 differentiation. Stephenson L, Johns MH, Woodward E, Mora AL, Boothby M (2004) J Immunol 173(7): 4523-8
    › Primary publication · 15383584 (PubMed)
  39. Cutting edge: the ontogeny and function of Va14Ja18 natural T lymphocytes require signal processing by protein kinase C theta and NF-kappa B. Stanic AK, Bezbradica JS, Park JJ, Van Kaer L, Boothby MR, Joyce S (2004) J Immunol 172(8): 4667-71
    › Primary publication · 15067039 (PubMed)
  40. NF-kappa B controls cell fate specification, survival, and molecular differentiation of immunoregulatory natural T lymphocytes. Stanic AK, Bezbradica JS, Park JJ, Matsuki N, Mora AL, Van Kaer L, Boothby MR, Joyce S (2004) J Immunol 172(4): 2265-73
    › Primary publication · 14764695 (PubMed)
  41. Recall helper T cell response: T helper 1 cell-resistant allergic susceptibility without biasing uncommitted CD4 T cells. Aronica MA, McCarthy S, Swaidani S, Mitchell D, Goral M, Sheller JR, Boothby M (2004) Am J Respir Crit Care Med 169(5): 587-95
    › Primary publication · 14617509 (PubMed)
  42. New programming of IL-4 receptor signal transduction in activated T cells: Stat6 induction and Th2 differentiation mediated by IL-4Ralpha lacking cytoplasmic tyrosines. Mora AL, Stephenson LM, Enerson B, Youn J, Keegan AD, Boothby M (2003) J Immunol 171(4): 1891-900
    › Primary publication · 12902491 (PubMed)
  43. T cell-intrinsic requirement for NF-kappa B induction in postdifferentiation IFN-gamma production and clonal expansion in a Th1 response. Corn RA, Aronica MA, Zhang F, Tong Y, Stanley SA, Kim SR, Stephenson L, Enerson B, McCarthy S, Mora A, Boothby M (2003) J Immunol 171(4): 1816-24
    › Primary publication · 12902482 (PubMed)
  44. Cancer-associated immunodeficiency and dendritic cell abnormalities mediated by the prostaglandin EP2 receptor. Yang L, Yamagata N, Yadav R, Brandon S, Courtney RL, Morrow JD, Shyr Y, Boothby M, Joyce S, Carbone DP, Breyer RM (2003) J Clin Invest 111(5): 727-35
    › Primary publication · 12618527 (PubMed) · PMC151895 (PubMed Central)
  45. Impaired NF-kappaB activation in T cells permits tolerance to primary heart allografts and to secondary donor skin grafts. Zhou P, Hwang KW, Palucki DA, Guo Z, Boothby M, Newell KA, Alegre ML (2003) Am J Transplant 3(2): 139-47
    › Primary publication · 12603209 (PubMed)
  46. CTLA-4 engagement regulates NF-kappaB activation in vivo. Harlin H, Hwang KW, Palucki DA, Kim O, Thompson CB, Boothby M, Alegre ML (2002) Eur J Immunol 32(8): 2095-104
    › Primary publication · 12209621 (PubMed)
  47. Constitutive expression of BCL-X(L) in the T lineage attenuates collagen-induced arthritis in Bcl-X(L) transgenic mice. Chen Y, Rosloniec E, Price J, Boothby M, Chen J (2002) Arthritis Rheum 46(2): 514-21
    › Primary publication · 11840455 (PubMed)
  48. Inefficient ZAP-70 phosphorylation and decreased thymic selection in vivo result from inhibition of NF-kappaB/Rel. Mora AL, Stanley S, Armistead W, Chan AC, Boothby M (2001) J Immunol 167(10): 5628-35
    › Primary publication · 11698434 (PubMed)
  49. Specificity of sn50 for NF-kappa B? Boothby M (2001) Nat Immunol 2(6): 471-2
    › Primary publication · 11376325 (PubMed)
  50. Redirection of T cell effector function in vivo and enhanced collagen-induced arthritis mediated by an IL-2R beta/IL-4R alpha chimeric cytokine receptor transgene. Chen Y, Rosloniec E, Goral MI, Boothby M, Chen J (2001) J Immunol 166(6): 4163-9
    › Primary publication · 11238667 (PubMed)
  51. NF-kappa B/Rel participation in the lymphokine-dependent proliferation of T lymphoid cells. Mora A, Youn J, Keegan A, Boothby M (2001) J Immunol 166(4): 2218-27
    › Primary publication · 11160275 (PubMed)
  52. The metalloproteinase matrilysin proteolytically generates active soluble Fas ligand and potentiates epithelial cell apoptosis. Powell WC, Fingleton B, Wilson CL, Boothby M, Matrisian LM (1999) Curr Biol 9(24): 1441-7
    › Primary publication · 10607586 (PubMed)
  53. Preferential role for NF-kappa B/Rel signaling in the type 1 but not type 2 T cell-dependent immune response in vivo. Aronica MA, Mora AL, Mitchell DB, Finn PW, Johnson JE, Sheller JR, Boothby MR (1999) J Immunol 163(9): 5116-24
    › Primary publication · 10528218 (PubMed)
  54. Paired Stat6 C-terminal transcription activation domains required both for inhibition of an IFN-responsive promoter and trans-activation. Goenka S, Youn J, Dzurek LM, Schindler U, Yu-Lee LY, Boothby M (1999) J Immunol 163(9): 4663-72
    › Primary publication · 10528163 (PubMed)
  55. Lineage-specific differences among CD8+ T cells in their dependence of NF-kappa B/Rel signaling. Mora AL, Chen D, Boothby M, Rubin DH (1999) Eur J Immunol 29(9): 2968-80
    › Primary publication · 10508271 (PubMed)
  56. Essential role of T cell NF-kappa B activation in collagen-induced arthritis. Seetharaman R, Mora AL, Nabozny G, Boothby M, Chen J (1999) J Immunol 163(3): 1577-83
    › Primary publication · 10415062 (PubMed)
  57. In vivo function of an interleukin 2 receptor beta chain (IL-2Rbeta)/IL-4Ralpha cytokine receptor chimera potentiates allergic airway disease. Youn J, Chen J, Goenka S, Aronica MA, Mora AL, Correa V, Sheller JR, Boothby M (1998) J Exp Med 188(10): 1803-16
    › Primary publication · 9815258 (PubMed) · PMC2212401 (PubMed Central)
  58. HMG-I(Y) phosphorylation status as a nuclear target regulated through insulin receptor substrate-1 and the I4R motif of the interleukin-4 receptor. Wang D, Zamorano J, Keegan AD, Boothby M (1997) J Biol Chem 272(40): 25083-90
    › Primary publication · 9312117 (PubMed)
  59. Perturbation of the T lymphocyte lineage in transgenic mice expressing a constitutive repressor of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. Boothby MR, Mora AL, Scherer DC, Brockman JA, Ballard DW (1997) J Exp Med 185(11): 1897-907
    › Primary publication · 9166419 (PubMed) · PMC2196335 (PubMed Central)
  60. Interleukin 4-inducible phosphorylation of HMG-I(Y) is inhibited by rapamycin. Wang DZ, Ray P, Boothby M (1995) J Biol Chem 270(39): 22924-32
    › Primary publication · 7559428 (PubMed)
  61. Cytological localization of chorionic gonadotropin alpha and placental lactogen mRNAs during development of the human placenta. Hoshina M, Boothby M, Boime I (1982) J Cell Biol 93(1): 190-8
    › Primary publication · 6896058 (PubMed) · PMC2112094 (PubMed Central)
  62. A single gonadotropin alpha-subunit gene in normal tissue and tumor-derived cell lines. Boothby M, Ruddon RW, Anderson C, McWilliams D, Boime I (1981) J Biol Chem 256(10): 5121-7
    › Primary publication · 6262319 (PubMed)
  63. Segregation patterns of polymorphic restriction sites of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin in trophoblastic disease. Hoshina M, Boothby MR, Hussa RD, Pattillo RA, Camel HM, Boime I (1984) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81(8): 2504-7
    › Primary publication · 6201859 (PubMed) · PMC345090 (PubMed Central)
  64. The beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin is encoded by multiple genes. Policastro P, Ovitt CE, Hoshina M, Fukuoka H, Boothby MR, Boime I (1983) J Biol Chem 258(19): 11492-9
    › Primary publication · 6194155 (PubMed)
  65. Imbalanced synthesis of human choriogonadotropin alpha and beta subunits reflects the steady state levels of the corresponding mRNAs. Boothby M, Kukowska J, Boime I (1983) J Biol Chem 258(15): 9250-3
    › Primary publication · 6192128 (PubMed)
  66. A DNA binding protein regulated by IL-4 and by differentiation in B cells. Boothby M, Gravallese E, Liou HC, Glimcher LH (1988) Science 242(4885): 1559-62
    › Primary publication · 3144043 (PubMed)
  67. Distinct cloned class II MHC DNA binding proteins recognize the X box transcription element. Liou HC, Boothby MR, Glimcher LH (1988) Science 242(4875): 69-71
    › Primary publication · 3140376 (PubMed)
  68. Linkage of human chorionic gonadotrophin and placental lactogen biosynthesis to trophoblast differentiation and tumorigenesis. Hoshina M, Boothby M, Hussa R, Pattillo R, Camel HM, Boime I (1985) Placenta 6(2): 163-72
    › Primary publication · 2991878 (PubMed)
  69. Differences in DNA sequence specificity among MHC class II X box binding proteins. Boothby M, Liou HC, Glimcher LH (1989) J Immunol 142(3): 1005-14
    › Primary publication · 2492326 (PubMed)
  70. A new member of the leucine zipper class of proteins that binds to the HLA DR alpha promoter. Liou HC, Boothby MR, Finn PW, Davidon R, Nabavi N, Zeleznik-Le NJ, Ting JP, Glimcher LH (1990) Science 247(4950): 1581-4
    › Primary publication · 2321018 (PubMed)
  71. Identification of a conserved lipopolysaccharide-plus-interleukin-4-responsive element located at the promoter of germ line epsilon transcripts. Rothman P, Li SC, Gorham B, Glimcher L, Alt F, Boothby M (1991) Mol Cell Biol 11(11): 5551-61
    › Primary publication · 1922063 (PubMed) · PMC361925 (PubMed Central)
  72. Role of lipopolysaccharide and IL-4 in control of transcription of the class II A alpha gene. Gravallese EM, Darling JM, Glimcher LH, Boothby M (1991) J Immunol 147(7): 2377-83
    › Primary publication · 1918969 (PubMed)
  73. IL-4 induces IL-2 receptor p75 beta-chain gene expression and IL-2-dependent proliferation in mouse T lymphocytes. Casey LS, Lichtman AH, Boothby M (1992) J Immunol 148(11): 3418-26
    › Primary publication · 1588041 (PubMed)